The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia (Essay Outline)

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The longer, protracted conflict/stand-off between Azerbaijan and Armenia stems from long-standing territorial and ethnic conflagration which can result in mass-scale displacement, blanket destruction, and, above all, increased involvement of outside powers risking a wider regional war.

A. Strategically important: the Caucasus region in SE Europe(Between the Dead Sea and Caspian sea)
B. The USSR in 1920-1922- Inclusion of Armenia and Azerbaijan
C. The Nagorno-Karabakh: An Autonomous Oblast of the Soviet Azerbaijan(Administrative unit)
D. The cold war era and the fall of the Soviet Union-1991

1. Guerrilla warfare 1988-1991
2. Full scale warfare 1992-1994
3. NK parliament voted-to join Armenia- 1988
a. Opposed by Moscow (Russia)
b. The Azerbaijan Soviet government
4. Collapse of the Soviet Union

a. Yerevan backed Armenia separatists seized NK and adjacent 7 Azerbaijan districts

A. Azerbaijan forces tried to recapture swaths of territory captured during the war between 1992-94.

A. The Nagorno-Karabakh region between Azerbaijan and Armania plus Nagorno Karabakh

A. Russia (Moscow)

1. Strategic ally with Armenia (Bilateral Multilateral a arrangements)
2. Sells weapons to both Azerbaijan and Armenia.
3. CSTO-Collective Security Treaty Organization
4. OSCE-Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (USA, France, Russia) a mediator mechanism
5. Stalled relations in the wake of 2018 Revolution between Armania and Russia

B. Turkey

1. 1991-Turkey first recognized Armenia (Azerbaijan PM’s words -One Nation with two states- Turkic culture + Population in Azerbaijan ).
2. First Diplomatic and moral support now all-out support
3. Mobilized Syrian mercenaries to Azerbaijan for fighting

C. Iran, Georgia, Qatar-Mediation and political settlement

D. UN-OSCE-Mediation . UNSC Four Resolutions in favour of Azerbaijan and warning to Armania to leave occupied territories peacefully)

E. Role of USA- Busy in Presidential Election and Global Pandemic crises

F. Role of Pakistan

1. Politically negotiated settlement
2. Role of mediation (Muslims world)
3. Voice at UN, SCO, Russia
4. Controlling religious outfits
5. Not aligning with any party


p style=”padding-left: 40px;”>A. NATO vs CSTO
B. The UNSC resolutions in favour of Azerbaijan
C. West Sanctions on Russia if Russia supports Armenia
D. Clash of Muslim World and Christian World

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